England and the Elizabethan Age

England was originally a Catholic nation like the majority of Europe. However, when King Henry the eight needed a male heir, he asked the pope to cancel his marriage. He wanted to marry another woman in hopes of receiving a male heir. The pope refused to avoid issues with the queen’s nephew who was the Holy Roman emperor Charles the fifth. In response King Henry broke ties with the Catholic church and set up an English church with the monarch as the head. After, King Henry’s death many of his children took various stances on the religion. His son Edward the sixth was a protestant that died after a six year reign and Mary the first restored the Catholic Church. Finally, Queen Elizabeth the first who was a protestant made England protestant and started a new era of English history.

During the Elizabethan age new rules were made to act as a compromise between Catholics and Protestants. She oversaw the beginning of England’s transition to becoming a major European power. Soon after her reign King Philip the second of Spain attempted to convert England back to Catholicism by sending an armada but Queen Elizabeth was successful in defending her nation which solidified England’s growth to power. In addition to military victory culture also flourished during the Elizabethan age. William Shakespeare made many of his greatest works during this time period which are still appreciated today.

The Elizabethan age was very significant. It was responsible for making Britain a protestant nation, a status that caused conflict and because of their victories at those conflicts Britain became a world power. Later they were able to use this power to form a world empire that would last almost a century. In addition, many of Britain’s greatest symbols of culture such as the plays of Shakespeare were created during the time period. These works helped enrich England’s culture and that is why they’re studied to this day. elizabeth

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The Northern Renaissance

The Northern Renaissance

Many of the cities  grew rapidly after the end of  the  Hundred Years’ War(1453), this was a change due to the fact that the population actually decreased due to the war and the bubonic plague.

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This ignited one of the greatest era’s of art there had  ever been, since many people were  a lot more supportive of the arts and had more money to spend due to the prosperity of the renaissance. Many of these people decided to become patrons for the arts. The idea of patronage for the arts spread rapidly throughout Europe. In Northern Europe the growth correlated to the Renaissance. As time went on many other artists were also gaining recognition. One famous artist actually rose from this time period, Leonardo da Vinci, who was asked to retire by Francis I of France. Leonardo Da Vinci is one of the greatest painters/ scientific minds of all time. He is widely known for the Mona Lisa and had a great career in many diverse fields.

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On the site http://www.biography.com/people/leonardo-da-vinci-40396#the-last-supper it states that Da Vinci also created “The Last Supper”,”The Vitruvian Man” and many more art pieces. He was also an anatomist and was  fascinated by it. He

was a very paranoid person so all of his notes were written in reverse Italian and he was quite rebellious for his time. He  went against the Church, who were the SUPREME POWER at the time and he dissected human bodies. This included a  pregnant woman with the child. This was a rebellious task because the Church believed that dissecting humans was blasphemous  and if Leonardo was discovered he would have been sentenced to death.

During the Renaissance  the artists had a great interest in realism which is basically showing everyday life. Realism was used to portray the average person but by painting them in such a natural way it sort of elevated their status.

There was TRADE between the artistic ideas of the Italian artist and the Northern Europeans, they each traveled to different areas and brought their techniques and styles which in turn created more diversity to the others style and techniques.

Germans                                                                                   Flemish

German painters were very influential because they had many artist that induced many new styles. One of the more famous artist was Albert Durer, he made woodcuts and engraving although the Renaissance was a period of realism but most of Durer’s works were based off of religious figures and other Greek myths, because he was so influential it caused the Renaissance period to expand a lot more because of his popularity.  Another very famous type of painter were the Flemish, they were known for their great patronage to the arts, the main technique that was used in early Flemish painters was layer upon layer paint which originated from oil painting. Jan van Eyck introduced this style and the reason why he used the layer on layer painting was because it created very subtle colors that could not be produced with just the regular oil based paints, the discreetness created a very realistic style that many artist today still study and recognize.
 In the article http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/durr/hd_durr.htm it brings up a very interesting point that Durer was a innovator and a very prominent figure at the time and he influenced many other artist for many generations to come, there was also an excerpt about how he became the court artist for Holy Roman Emperors.  The apex of Flemish painting occurred during the 1550’s  because of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Who is actually the artist I chose to research about for Art App) his style induced a shockingly realistic trance to the viewer, a lot of his work is based around people such as peasants, weddings, dances, and harvest basically he was able to capture a large group of people but have all of their motion and their characteristics in one piece of art.

The styles of  German and the Flemish painters display a sense of realism, which is why why they became famous. At the time it was absolutely astonishing to emphasize a realistic style of art and as a result,  their works are still praised and displayed in great Museums and Galleries. Pieter Bruegel the Elder is still considered one of the most influential artist of his time and he has some of his paintings up at the MET. One of Bruegel paintings show a mix of a peasant and a wedding or the Peasants Wedding, it shows

peasant wedding

  1. The Bride- who seems to be under a green piece of cloth that is hung on the wall while she wears a crown that is similar to the one on the cloth.
  2. The servers- They pass the plates around the table and can either be depicted as other peasants or her brothers.
  3. The Guest- Who just attend the wedding and are served
  4. The Musicians- During this time period they played bagpipes at the weddings.

Italian Humanist

  • Attempted to revitalize the classical text and languages.
  • Once they had gone up north they influenced the northern humanists to use the same concept.

Christian (Northern) Humanist

  • Tried to reform society by taking the idea of reviving a classical language and text and applying it to Christianity.
  • Emphasized the Christian lifestyle.
  • One of the main components was education, they provided schools for both boys and girls
  • The most famous humanist were Desiderius Erasmus who wrote “The Praise of the Folly”              folly guy                          utopia

and essential he believed in the bible and that other individuals should not rely on the priest but should resort to the bible for answers.

  • Thomas More wrote a book named “Utopia” which depicted the perfect society where there

was no corruption and that since their was no greed there was very little need for us to have money.

The Northern Renaissance was significant for many reasons. It was the source of the printing press, the device that pressured Europe to learn how to read by mass-producing books. The Northern Renaissance was also the area of the Reformation, the event that would forever split Christianity apart. In addition, many new forms of art were created after artists fled Italy. These included wood-cuts and a more realistic style of art that focused on the common man. Such style of art would be important centuries into the future as showing the conditions of average citizens had great political consequences.  For instance in the 20th century a famous photo by the name of “Migraine mother” helped motivate the government to provide help to people suffering from the Great depression. The photo did not practice realism the way the paintings did but one important similarity the two had were the depiction of common people of the time period which allowed for political change. Many philosophers of the Northern Renaissance went the extra mile and decided to discuss the best way for humanity to live, such  as in a utopia and how to fight corruption in the government, issues that still exist to this day. Overall these are all the impacts that the Northern Renaissance had on our society.

A man of plays- William Shakespeare

One of the most if not the most prominent figure in all of literature is William Shakespeare. He made his mark on the world during the Elizabethan Age and is still studied by almost every classroom, he brought in this very real sense of humans and his diction was incredibly clean. The many writers today have based their styles off of Shakespeare and even about 500 years later there have been countless plays and movies that are all dedicated to him and are reenactments of his plays.

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The man who taught Europe how to read- Johannes Gutenberg

Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press which allowed for the mass production of books for the first time. Previously, books had to be manually reproduced and the process were tedious. With this new method of printing the circulation of books exploded. As a result, there was greater reason for the European masses to learn how to read. The printing press allowed for the spread of new ideas and news. The printing press is credited for spreading Luther’s ninety-five thesis across within a few short months. The rapid spread allowed millions of Europeans become aware of the divide between the Christians and took a side.

The printing press is significant in today’s world since it allowed the mass production of books. If it weren’t for this the literacy rate for Europeans would have been a lot lower and exclusive to the wealthy. The tedious process of copying a book by hand would cause the prices of books to skyrocket. As a result, even a simple novel that is written for entertainment, would probably cost several times their current price. If buying books remained expensive, then the entire working class, and even some of the middle class might live their lives illiterate.

printing pressPrinting Press

The monk that split Europe- Martin Luther

Born in 1483, Martin Luther wasn’t always meant to be a monk. At an early age his parents were encouraging him to take up a career as a lawyer. For a while he studied grammar and logic and received a degree in the field in 1501. However, after encountering a very powerful thunderstorm in 1505 Martin was famous for saying “Save me, St. Anne, and I’ll become a monk!” After the storm suddenly ended Luther became a monk. After attending a conference in Rome he became disillusioned with Catholicism due to the heavy corruption and immoralities displayed by the clergy. As a result, Martin Luther attempted to teach theology back in Germany. After Pope Leo X announced the sale of indulgences to fund the construction of a new church, Martin nailed the famous 95 thesis to the door of a nearby Church. Thanks to the printing press the document was mass produced and spread throughout Europe within 2 months. The Pope had Martin excommunicated and he decided to withdraw from Catholicism completely. His actions ignited the Reformation.

Many of Luther’s beliefs contrasted those of the Church. He believed that doing good deeds wasn’t enough to bring salvation. He claimed that having absolute faith in god and Jesus would allow a person to enter heaven. He also believed that the sales f indulgences were immoral and the Catholic Church was allowing corruption to run unchecked. He also believed that every person should be able to interpret the Bible for themselves, suggesting that the role of Pope was unnecessary. In addition, Luther thought the Church should not be forcing taxes on the people and the leaders should not be leading such materialistic lives. The results of Martin Luther created a split in Christianity that exists to this day.

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The Reformation-Calvinism, Jesuits, Catholism –

Rajon Das, Khang Kim, Mohammed Sarker

Global Project

SECTION 4: (The Reformation Continues)

The reformation was not only a religious movement during the 16th century; it was something more.

The reformation was an fascinating time. It began by Huldrych Zwingli in Switzerland. Mentioned in, history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/reformation-switzerland-calvin.html, it was influenced by reforms of Luther and Christian humanism of Erasmus, hence happened AFTER. Similarly, the Switzerland reformation tried working with the nobles of the states they were involved in. He openly attacked abuses in Catholic Church so it can be more like early Christianity and believers have more control over the Church. Although cities such as Zurich adopted his reforms and customs, a war broke out in 1531 between the Swiss Protestants and Catholics. This was the period where Zwingli died. In my opinion, Zwingli should have migrated for a bit. This is because when the five states declared war, his men were weak due to an surprised encounter before. This was an example of religious conflicts between people due to humanities inability to accept different faiths at the time. Wars like these made the Reformation a very dangerous place to live and contributed to the sharp divide between Christians even to this day.

zwingliHuldrych Zwingli

However, it was also the time where a law student named John Calvin was grew more passionate about his religious beliefs. The book Calvin published, Institutes of the Christian Religion, was A SIGNIFICANT creation. It led to Calvinism, a MAJOR branch of Protestantism. According to www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/Protestant, protestants were a follower of reformation. They were apart of Western Christian Churches and separated from Roman Catholic Churches, the part of the church that acknowledges the pope as its head. In the current day, it has developed more than reformation. The current pope, Pope Francis, served as as provincial for Argentina and was the first Jesuit pope, according to  www.cnn.com/2013/03/14/world/pope-francis-fast-facts/. The Institutes Of the Christian Churches displayed his thoughts/ideas about God and  human behavior. According to www.goodsheppc.com/theological/mastersummaryword97reverse.pdf, it showed god as the creator. Other interesting points include making life horrible to show the glory of heaven, the justification of humans is determined by only FAITH and there were 4 categories a human could be classified in. These include, “1) no knowledge of God, 2) those whose mouths say yes I know God, but whose actions say they do not, 3) hypocrites, and 4) the regenerate who make holiness their concern. We should note that even unbelievers are given gifts of God.”

unbeliever

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The video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uR17M9aEnKs, taught me a lot about Calvin’s impact in society. He believed in theocracy, meaning a government controlled of its religious leaders and inspired many people. One of them was John Knox, who took Calvin’s ideas and expanded it in Geneva. He followed a theocracy and all of his followers became known as Presbyterians. He helped make Calvinism a MAIN religion, as other people,such as the Dutch and French, started adopting their form of church organization via cultural diffusion possibly? Although some French people adopted this (known as Huguenots), the French Catholics did not, causing there to a deadly massacre lasting six months. The relationship between Calvin and John Knox can be connected to the later  Mahatma Gandhi’s influence on Martin Luther King Jr. During the time India was attempting to gain independence from Britain, Gandhi  promoted no violence. Martin Luther King Jr. took his ideas and expanded it to fight against discrimination in America many years later!

john knox

Teachings of the Protestants included that all religious truth came from the Bible. There were different types of Protestants however. One such type were the Anabaptist

Anabaptist

  • must be re-baptized as adults if baptized as children
  • church and state are isolated
  • never fight in wars
  • teachings influenced Quakers and Baptists

*A map showing where each division lives today*R map thingy

Women such as Fransic I, Marguerite of Narvae, Katherina Zell and Katherina von Bora also had made an impact during reformation. They made an impact by providing protection from execution, speaking out and managing family finances. According to www.eldrbarry.net/heidel/wivesref.pdf, women during this time period set the alarm clock allowing significant women to come through in future history such as Harriet Tubman during the Civil War or Rosa Parks during the Civil Rights Movement.

The followers who stayed loyal to Catholicism allowed for the movement known as Catholic Reformation. There were many SIGNIFICANT reformers:

Ignatius of Loyola thought of sins and life of Jesus. He wrote a book called Spiritual Experiences.This book consisted of all of his thoughts and prayers. Here are some of my favorite quotes from his book:

  • “Act as if everything depended on you; trust as if everything depended on God.”
  • “Teach us to give and not to count the cost.”

“To give, and not to count the cost, to fight, and not to heed the wounds,

to toil, and not to seek for rest, to labor, and not to ask for any reward, save that of knowing that we do thy will” (http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/336357.Ignatius_of_Loyola)

His followers were called Jesuits. What major fact I learned from the VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PLzg7fhG70 was that the Jesuits had three goals:  teachers well trained for classical studies and theology, convert non Christians to Catholicism and to stop the spread of Protestantism.

Pope Paul III      Pope Paul IV
  • directed a council of cardinals to see any abuses going on in Church
  • approved Jesuit order
  • Inquisition to seek out territory
  • called for Council of Trent, where Church leaders agreed on doctrines
  • carried out council decrees
  • made officials mark dangerous books (“Index of Forbidden Books”) <- sort of like places in the Middle East of Asia where citizens are forced to be close minded and read/see only what the government decides they could read/see

The result of the reformation ended with social, religious and political effects. In the book, The Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation by Peter Marshall, it discusses how in the end, the impacts of reformation was good with some negative aspects. The reformation divided Christianity across Europe into two different sects. There was a Protestant and Catholic branch with many sub-branches including Calvinism, Methodism and the Anabaptist. Each had different interpretations on the necessary deeds of the Christian man and what was considered right. For example, Calvinism believed in a very strict form of religion in which people lived in a utopia and many forms of entertainment were banned. The Catholics believed that the Church and the Pope had authority equal to that of the Bible and selling indulgences were believed to be justified. Due to the different philosophies between the religions conflict broke out and many nations became divided over their religion. This relates to today since the divide has shaped the culture of many nations today. To attract followers many people from both sides of Christianity began printing out their own viewpoints on religion with the printing press. They also started constructing colleges and universities around Europe. This encouraged many people to start reading literature and learning more about religion. This boosted the literacy rate across Europe and helped people become more educated.

The Birth of the Renaissance – ITALY

Italy began the renaissance due to various factors. One factor included their strong trade economy, their access to multiple port cities across the Mediterranean, and their ship building industry. Second, the Italians developed many large cities while the rest of Europe remained mostly rural. Third, Italy led the development of a merchant class that allowed for trade to grow and many people grew powerful because of these jobs. For example the Medici family became powerful after investing in trade and finance that they were able to become dictators of Florence.

The Italian renaissance was also heavily inspired by the Greek and Roman empires. They recovered many ancient philosophical works and seemed to learn new things. This movement was known as humanism. This movement encouraged the pursuit of knowledge. As a result the term “Renaissance man” came to life, people who were able to achieve great things in multiple fields, especially literature, philosophy and history. Such people included inventors like Leonardo da Vinci and artists like Michelangelo. They both emphasized a new movement in art known as realism.The renaissance had many great writers such as Petrarch who started the Renaissance and wrote poetry. His poetry emphasised self-identity ad the ability to think for yourself. he emphasised secularism and believed that people should act outside of the church. Another great writer was Machiavelli who did a thorough analysis on human behavior. he noted that humans were never perfect and how this could be used to gain great power.

Italy led an important role in not only the renaissance but also our daily lives today. Had it not been for Italy, trade would not have become an integral part of our economy and the Western and Eastern hemisphere would have remained isolated and unaware of each other’s cultures. In addition Italy helped develop the concept of the middle class through creating the merchant career. Many people who would’ve otherwise died as peasants were able to rise up in the ranks through working hard and gain great success in their later lifetimes. If this hadn’t occurred modern society might still have a sharp divide between the rich and the poor with no middle ground. Third, Italy encouraged the urbanization of Europe which allowed for the creation of new jobs and opportunities. If not for this Europe might still have been in a primitive rural society. Finally, Italy developed the concept of humanism and the Renaissance man. This encouraged people to learn more about classical subjects, politics and even their own identity. Without this people would have stayed ignorant about the intellectual world.

The Renaissance Man – LEONARD DA VINCI

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Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452. He was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist, who wrote thousands of pages of notes on his observations, backwards. He drew the prototypes of many new inventions such as the tank and the helicopter and even a flying machine, inspired by bird’s wings and the story of Daedalus and Icarus from the ancient Greeks. He dissected human corpses in order to study anatomy. He painted many famous works of art such as the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. Leonardo Da Vinci was the definition of Renaissance man as he excelled in many branches of knowledge.

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