Rajon Das, Khang Kim, Mohammed Sarker
SECTION 4: (The Reformation Continues)
The reformation was not only a religious movement during the 16th century; it was something more.
The reformation was an fascinating time. It began by Huldrych Zwingli in Switzerland. Mentioned in, history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/reformation-switzerland-calvin.html, it was influenced by reforms of Luther and Christian humanism of Erasmus, hence happened AFTER. Similarly, the Switzerland reformation tried working with the nobles of the states they were involved in. He openly attacked abuses in Catholic Church so it can be more like early Christianity and believers have more control over the Church. Although cities such as Zurich adopted his reforms and customs, a war broke out in 1531 between the Swiss Protestants and Catholics. This was the period where Zwingli died. In my opinion, Zwingli should have migrated for a bit. This is because when the five states declared war, his men were weak due to an surprised encounter before. This was an example of religious conflicts between people due to humanities inability to accept different faiths at the time. Wars like these made the Reformation a very dangerous place to live and contributed to the sharp divide between Christians even to this day.
However, it was also the time where a law student named John Calvin was grew more passionate about his religious beliefs. The book Calvin published, Institutes of the Christian Religion, was A SIGNIFICANT creation. It led to Calvinism, a MAJOR branch of Protestantism. According to www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/Protestant, protestants were a follower of reformation. They were apart of Western Christian Churches and separated from Roman Catholic Churches, the part of the church that acknowledges the pope as its head. In the current day, it has developed more than reformation. The current pope, Pope Francis, served as as provincial for Argentina and was the first Jesuit pope, according to www.cnn.com/2013/03/14/world/pope-francis-fast-facts/. The Institutes Of the Christian Churches displayed his thoughts/ideas about God and human behavior. According to www.goodsheppc.com/theological/mastersummaryword97reverse.pdf, it showed god as the creator. Other interesting points include making life horrible to show the glory of heaven, the justification of humans is determined by only FAITH and there were 4 categories a human could be classified in. These include, “1) no knowledge of God, 2) those whose mouths say yes I know God, but whose actions say they do not, 3) hypocrites, and 4) the regenerate who make holiness their concern. We should note that even unbelievers are given gifts of God.”
The video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uR17M9aEnKs, taught me a lot about Calvin’s impact in society. He believed in theocracy, meaning a government controlled of its religious leaders and inspired many people. One of them was John Knox, who took Calvin’s ideas and expanded it in Geneva. He followed a theocracy and all of his followers became known as Presbyterians. He helped make Calvinism a MAIN religion, as other people,such as the Dutch and French, started adopting their form of church organization via cultural diffusion possibly? Although some French people adopted this (known as Huguenots), the French Catholics did not, causing there to a deadly massacre lasting six months. The relationship between Calvin and John Knox can be connected to the later Mahatma Gandhi’s influence on Martin Luther King Jr. During the time India was attempting to gain independence from Britain, Gandhi promoted no violence. Martin Luther King Jr. took his ideas and expanded it to fight against discrimination in America many years later!
Teachings of the Protestants included that all religious truth came from the Bible. There were different types of Protestants however. One such type were the Anabaptist
- must be re-baptized as adults if baptized as children
- church and state are isolated
- never fight in wars
- teachings influenced Quakers and Baptists
*A map showing where each division lives today*R
Women such as Fransic I, Marguerite of Narvae, Katherina Zell and Katherina von Bora also had made an impact during reformation. They made an impact by providing protection from execution, speaking out and managing family finances. According to www.eldrbarry.net/heidel/wivesref.pdf, women during this time period set the alarm clock allowing significant women to come through in future history such as Harriet Tubman during the Civil War or Rosa Parks during the Civil Rights Movement.
The followers who stayed loyal to Catholicism allowed for the movement known as Catholic Reformation. There were many SIGNIFICANT reformers:
Ignatius of Loyola thought of sins and life of Jesus. He wrote a book called Spiritual Experiences.This book consisted of all of his thoughts and prayers. Here are some of my favorite quotes from his book:
- “Act as if everything depended on you; trust as if everything depended on God.”
- “Teach us to give and not to count the cost.”
“To give, and not to count the cost, to fight, and not to heed the wounds,
to toil, and not to seek for rest, to labor, and not to ask for any reward, save that of knowing that we do thy will” (http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/336357.Ignatius_of_Loyola)
His followers were called Jesuits. What major fact I learned from the VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PLzg7fhG70 was that the Jesuits had three goals: teachers well trained for classical studies and theology, convert non Christians to Catholicism and to stop the spread of Protestantism.
|Pope Paul III
|| Pope Paul IV
- directed a council of cardinals to see any abuses going on in Church
- approved Jesuit order
- Inquisition to seek out territory
- called for Council of Trent, where Church leaders agreed on doctrines
- carried out council decrees
- made officials mark dangerous books (“Index of Forbidden Books”) <- sort of like places in the Middle East of Asia where citizens are forced to be close minded and read/see only what the government decides they could read/see
The result of the reformation ended with social, religious and political effects. In the book, The Oxford Illustrated History of the Reformation by Peter Marshall, it discusses how in the end, the impacts of reformation was good with some negative aspects. The reformation divided Christianity across Europe into two different sects. There was a Protestant and Catholic branch with many sub-branches including Calvinism, Methodism and the Anabaptist. Each had different interpretations on the necessary deeds of the Christian man and what was considered right. For example, Calvinism believed in a very strict form of religion in which people lived in a utopia and many forms of entertainment were banned. The Catholics believed that the Church and the Pope had authority equal to that of the Bible and selling indulgences were believed to be justified. Due to the different philosophies between the religions conflict broke out and many nations became divided over their religion. This relates to today since the divide has shaped the culture of many nations today. To attract followers many people from both sides of Christianity began printing out their own viewpoints on religion with the printing press. They also started constructing colleges and universities around Europe. This encouraged many people to start reading literature and learning more about religion. This boosted the literacy rate across Europe and helped people become more educated.